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MOSLER'S LAW: There is no financial crisis so deep that a sufficiently large tax cut or spending increase cannot deal with it.

Proposal update for Obama

Posted by WARREN MOSLER on January 21st, 2009


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  1. Full ‘payroll tax holiday’ where the Treasury makes all payments for employees and employers.
    • Restores incomes to assist those still working to make their payments, keep their homes, and end the credit crisis.
    • Reduces corporate cost structure to help contain prices as demand increases.
  2. $300 billion in revenue sharing for the States on a per capita basis with no strings attached.
    • Enables States to fund operations.
    • Enables States fund infrastructure projects.
  3. Fund an $8/hr. National Service job for anyone willing and able to work that includes full health care coverage.
    • Addresses unemployment from the ‘bottom up’ rather than the ‘top down’ the way other measures do.
    • Provides for a far superior price anchor than the current practice of using unemployment for that purpose.
  4. Eliminate the need for the Fed to demand collateral from member banks when it lends to them.
    • Demanding collateral is redundant and obstructive to lending.
    • Allows the NY Fed to hit its assigned fed funds target.
  5. Take action to immediately reduce crude oil and crude product consumption.

(Details available on request.)


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12 Responses to “Proposal update for Obama”

  1. Jim Baird Says:

    And yet again, instead of talking about anything that would really address the situation, the Best and Brightest are arguing about irrelevancies like whether or not to nationalize the banks. While I think it would be a good idea (turn all the employees into GSes, and maybe discourage bright people from careers in finance), “recapitalizing banks” (whether nationalized or not) does nothing when there are no incomes to support new loans anyway…

    Reply

  2. Dave Begotka Says:

    Why did my comment go away?

    Reply

  3. Dave Begotka Says:

    The Missing Post

    Warren? You are looking past the criminals, look forward? We can not move forward with out learning from the past. Who blew up the twin towers? Nobody ever said how Osama put the bombs in the building?

    All of this is connected, your plan seems like you really care, however how we can let things this big slide? Otherwise it seems like a half fix.

    Eliminate the FED! It is un-constitutional, Just think if people could afford to pay off there house like a car loan. Everybody would be better off. Except the ones who have raped the people for soo long.

    Reply

  4. warren mosler Says:

    govt has to set an interest rate with a non conv. currency

    it also has to regulate the banks.

    the govt agency to do that is called the fed. and that’s all they do

    i’d set rates at 0 and let them focus on bank regulation as prescribed by congress.

    Reply

  5. Dave Begotka Says:

    Did you know that the FBI won’t and does not list Osama BinLaden for 911? This kind of information is troubling to me, and not covered by the media.

    All of what I see says that the Fed is a private company, furthermore they carry the blame for a lot of the problems now. They need to have the country in mind, not selfish interests. I just think its too late for reconciling with the Fed, time for big change!

    Reply

    warren mosler Reply:

    Dave, your way out in left field on this one.

    They are a public institution for public purpose, with profits going to the govt. as below.

    None of the FOMC understands monetary operations or reserve accounting.

    They have made a lot of mistakes most of which I have pointed out on this blog.

    Most critics know even less than the Fed about monetary ops ans so their criticism is way off base.

    For example blaming the fed for the housing situation is ridiculous.

    But blaming the fed for not knowing to lend unsecured to its own banks or underwriting its $ swap lines to foreign cb’s is a valid criticism that seems only i am making.

    Reply

    Robert Bostick Reply:

    @warren mosler,

    From: Andthorne@aol.com
    robbrian_06@yahoo.com
    Subject: Federal Reserve
    To: The Acting Comptroller General of the United States
    Date: Sunday, April 5, 2009, 8:14 PM

    Dear Mr. Dodaro,

    The Board of Governors, the Federal Reserve Banks, and the Federal Reserve System as a whole are all subject to several levels of audit and review. Under the Federal Banking Agency Audit Act (enacted in 1978 as Public Law 95-320), which authorizes the Comptroller General of the United States to audit the Federal Reserve System, and the Government Accountability Office (GAO) has conducted numerous reviews of Federal Reserve activities.

    In addition, the Board’s Office of Inspector General (OIG) audits and investigates Board programs and operations as well as those Board functions delegated to the Reserve Banks. The Board’s financial statements, and its compliance with laws and regulations affecting those statements, are audited annually by an outside auditor retained by the OIG.

    Below is a request for the vigorous and immediate application of the above auditing authorities of the Comptroller General of the United States and the OIG to resolve the fact of fraud and other unlawful practices initiated by the Federal Reserve.

    It is incumbent upon your office to investigate and rectify the heinous actions of the Federal Reserve which have literally robbed millions of Americans of their real estate equity.

    The Facts

    I discovered that the reason South Florida values have fallen so sharply, in just the last nine to twelve months, is due solely to the illegal actions of the Federal Reserve, who put pressure on the Appraisal Foundation Standards Board to add a new standard that specifically allowed this Lemming- like fall of values.

    Before I go further I would like to preface my findings with two facts:

    1. South Florida values, given they are residential improved property, have never fallen before. Repeat . . . never, not during the Great Depression, not during the post World War II recession, not during the period of eighteen percent interest rates, or in any other recession. When the real estate market dies, there are no buyers to take value down; when the real estate market returns, it returns at where it left off. This is the tensile strength of real estate, and therefore, as it is the main asset of most Americans, it was also the tensile strength of the nation. Repeat. It was the tensile strength of the nation.

    2. The Sub Prime is a scapegoat for the bad judgment and illegal activity of Wall Street and the banks. What initiated the economic fiasco we now face, which is in my opinion careening beyond a fiasco toward economic holocaust, was, however, the halting of the sub prime, yes, I repeat, halting sub prime lending is what went wrong.

    Sub prime lending was, in the beginning, basically, a creative combination of FHA credit standards, which were in use for a very long time, and also it was a long standing practice of conventional lending packaging. Stated income of both 80 % and 90 % and variable rate mortgages have been around for decades, without causing a financial debacle, or any financial harm at all, and these policies created a lot of homeowners that otherwise could not have owned a home.

    Moreover, interest rates remained relatively stable during the last five years, and had the sub prime been around when the victims of the predatory lending got their new mortgage bill, usually 3-4 times what the preliminary payment was, they would have been able to go back to sub prime loans, and refinance, tack the closing costs on, and keep their houses and our economy going Wall Street- and certain banks, insurance, and mortgage companies have created an automatic put (betting these mortgages would fail) to cover up the effects of their predatory lending: The sub prime was the catch phrase of lending when they decided to incorporate their predatory lending practices, with a trend toward a murky index called, “LIBOR” and the complicity of London based AIG to insure risky mortgages at 150% of their real value. Certain lender’s share direct culpability in allowing outright fraud by ignoring long established underwriting practices. Repeat . . . direct culpability.

    Background on Standards

    Strict underwriting guidelines were put into effect after the Savings and Loan debacle of the 80’s and the nature of the alleged fraud that occurred could only have happened if these standards were deliberately ignored by bank underwriters. If you read the 2004 advise to Congress from the Appraisal Foundation Board, just as the fraud was beginning and the LIBOR index came into play, you will see the Appraisal Foundation Standards Board’s representative bragged about the complete reliability of the Standards put in after the S and L problems in 1987 and 1989. And he was right; certain banks just ignored them.

    Personal Knowledge of Fraudulent Practices

    I am tired of reading stories about buyers who altered a W2; that is not possible, because the standards call for arms length employment verification. I personally experienced a call from an appraiser, after I had sent her comparable sales, asking me if I had sent her additional comparables; I had not. Someone had sent her closing statements on properties that were not even sold or under contract, let alone legally closed; and I told her so. There is no way that type of circumstance could escape even the most basic underwriting parameters, and yet it apparently did; the loans funded and closed. I heard the FBI was investigating this buyer in2007 for 750 fraudulent loans in South Florida alone. This equates to about 191 billion dollars in mortgage fraud, but after two years there have been no arrests.

    I have recently asked the U.S. Attorney General to look at the facts surrounding this particular buyer, whose activity, together with others like him, have destroyed our state and our country. I do not understand why the banks and, or the states have not pushed for fraud investigations. Until just last week 4/1/2009, the FBI had arrested no one in two years, and it had only arrested people that represented about 200 sales country wide. Last week they arrested more people who did another 150 loans all over the country. There was one buyer who did 750 in South Florida alone.

    1. These loans never had the first payment made on them.

    2. When, not if, they were sold to Fannie Mae- and subsequently to an REIT, the banks involved had to know they were bad when they sold them.

    3. In addition, despite the fact securities laws say that when banks and Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac sell their loans to REITs, they must transfer ownership, they have not, and therefore, they are foreclosing on American homeowners and property investors illegally.

    4. Every one whose loan sold to an REIT, which is every one of them . . . has been foreclosed on by an entity that either does not own the loan or does not legally own it.

    5. Certain Judges are beginning to throw these types of suits out of court. Certain law enforcement institutions should be throwing the people, who failed to transfer ownership, when they knew they had to . . . in jail. This is what Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, Wall Street and the Federal Reserve are hiding from the American public and Congress. I saw a report that 50% of America ’s loans were sold to the REITs. That is not so, and I am tired of my press, the supposed, 4th estate of America, regurgitating planted information as factual because it comes from established institutions and the media eschews due diligence.

    The banks must sell their loans in order to get more capital to lend. They sell 100% of their mortgages that are underwritten with Fannie Mae standards to Fannie Mae, the bulk of the rest, which equates to about 98% of all loans, get sold directly to investment packagers, so they lost no money; Fannie Mae sold them to Wall Street to get more money to buy loans from the banks, so they lost no money; Wall Street packaged all of them, Fannie Mae and non Fannie Mae, and sold them to REITs, so Wall Street lost no money; REITs insured the packages with AIG for 150% of their value, so not only did no one looses any money, but someone made a bundle of money on the insurance overage payment, and the American public paid AIG, a foreign corporation, REPEAT, American tax payer money was used to pay a foreign corporation for their loses. This could not be legal, and no one has opened a challenge to it. How can my government give American taxpayer money to a foreign corporation . . . AIG, and how can you buy interest in a foreign corporation with American tax payer money???

    Better than average real estate value escalation, between late 2003 and 2005, was legitimate and warranted because of an increasing trend for Americans to put their money into income real estate properties, not the stock market. After 9/11 while the stock market was moving laterally for five years, during the above period of predatory lending and rampant unchecked fraud, naturally, the real estate market took off like the proverbial bat out of the proverbial hot place, just four short months after 9/11/2001. This steam engine of buyers was driven by money removed from the stock market to put in the more stable terra firma we commonly know as income real estate, and by the creative, albeit soon to be compromised, Sub Prime that allowed conventional mortgage lenders to use FHA credit standards.

    Unfortunately, it was bound to get a bad name, when it was also used for fraudulent and predatory lending tied to the LIBOR. And, the 2005-2007 escalation in property values was valid; it was real, because of limited land near urban centers, and because of a growing population in this country. The increase in values in South Florida the first quarter of 2008 was well after fraud had stopped, and by then financing was the most difficult it had ever been. The increase had nothing to do with inflated appraisals; repeat, it was real; it was the beginning of a normal two year come-back that was suddenly squashed by the Federal Reserve’s complicity stemming from 2006, because so many banks held unhealthy levels of non-performing mortgages and needed to find a way to dump their inventory. The Federal Reserve made the Foundation agree to tie the new Scope of Work Appraisal Standard to their risk management, and as the banks lost no money, they are making a bundle even at the lower prices. We are being victimized by a plain and simple scam. Congress, or someone, needs to make these mysterious toxic assets show up on a grid with the following information:
    • Buyers name;
    • Original Lenders name;
    • Date of Closing;
    • Date of first Mortgage payment;
    • Date of last Mortgage payment made by borrower;
    • Owner occupied or non owner occupied.;
    • Current occupancy status of the property;
    • Date of all sales of the mortgage, and to whom,
    • Was ownership also transferred?
    • Date transferred to a REIT;
    • Date the actual ownership transferred to the REIT, as it should have been;
    • Market value just prior to when the Scope of Work Rule combined with a risk
    management mandateto the appraiser from the bank in 2008;
    • Has it been foreclosed, or is it in process;
    • Finally, if there was a short sale what percentage of value did the owner loose?

    That these upward value trends created an affordable housing issue is another problem! And the fact that someone who saved enough to buy a home and lost their 400 thousand dollar home to a 200 thousand dollar buyer is not a bitter sweet story: It is a horror story, because every home owner in the area of that 200 thousand dollar foreclosure lost 200 thousand dollars worth of equity too, the day that first home closed, and the communities lost the tax dollars, and any bank with an equity line on the property lost their collateral.

    If any of these home owners in the community affected by the 50% discounted sale gets into financial trouble, they will let their home – worth less than they owe- go. This is highway robbery of American equity by the banks’ predatory lending and the Federal Reserves machination of Appraisal Standards, which were designed to be a neutral buffer between the American property owner and the lenders, and now can only be described as predatory, with not a vestige of consideration for American homeowner property rights.

    In the Spring of 2005, Alan Greenspan opened his mouth and said that the real estate market was doomed. At that point in time the market was slowing on its own accord, because income buyers found their losses too high to carry, but the normal first and second homebuyer carried on. As Realtors, we were perplexed by his statement; we had had two year cycles of ups and down regularly for decades. Doomed? We wondered why he was not saying that about the stock market, if it moved laterally for another five years there would be no stock market. His comments were immediately followed by a press onslaught about the certainty that real estate investors were going to take a big hit, a very big hit. We had never seen anything like it before. There was no reason for the press to tell stories of certain value lost, when that is never what happens when the market dies, because there are no buyers to take the market down.

    • Perhaps, Mr. Greenspan was trying to get everyone ready for:
    • the new Scope of Work Rule, which he would tie to the bank’s risk
    management, or
    • perhaps he was getting everyone ready for the pulling of the plug on the sub prime, just as home owners and investor’s loans were about to escalate, forcing everyone into foreclosure with no way to refinance. What ever the reason, Mr. Greenspan predicted doom for our industry, and whatever the reason, the press fell in line and marched to his tune, with unending noise, without any research at all, we will, perhaps, never know, but the effect was immediate. Mr. Greenspan carries a lot of weight and the public is not a Realtor; they did not know that when the market dies there are no buyers to take the market down, and they stopped buying because no one wants to buy a house and lose money on the way to closing.

    1. This portrait of the biggest equity grab in the history of the nation is almost finished. The new Home Valuation Code eliminates local appraisal and puts the liability of determining market values on Realtors, with “Opinion of Value” letters, which are to be based on “market conditions.” Mr. Geithner only has to get permission to use the tax payer’s dollar to finance 80% of the foreign national acquisition of American’s lost equity. An owner of a 400 thousand dollar house is not rich, and the Federal Reserve is no Robin Hood .

    2. On February 7, 2008, I read a story about the condition of the real estate market in the South Florida Business Journal. The story quoted Michael Cannon, a respected owner of a large appraisal firm and consulting company. He said, ” … Wall Street did not understand real estate.” I sent Michael Cannon an email complimenting him on the article, and then I asked him a question about what I had recently observed on appraisals; they were beginning to use foreclosures and short sales when computing values. This had never been allowed before.

    3. During the Savings and Loan Scandal of the 80’s, a short sale meant only forgiving the unpaid interest, late and legal fees, because the bank could not sell the property for less than market value and meet their fiduciary responsibility to their Directors and investors unless they could prove market value was less, and they could not use the foreclosure, any other foreclosure . . . or duress sale to do it; you had to use arms length sales.

    Mr. Cannon responded to my email thanking me for my compliments, but he did not answer my question: “…had appraisal standards been changed?”

    4. Three weeks ago, I saw a graph that accompanied a story on George Perez; it demonstrated South Florida property value median costs from 2005 on; showing the market becoming becalmed and running in a straight line, neither up nor down, then it showed small increases and decreases, ending with a substantial increase the first quarter of 2008, repeat, a substantial increase, before it dropped straight down, almost 50%.

    5. This time I did not email Michael Cannon. I got on the Internet; it took me ten minutes to find out how the Federal Reserve destroyed America in three years. I have a series of emails that tell the story.

    6. Since most of the media and reporters are ignoring the mass destruction that has been visited upon the American public’s real estate equity, because you think values had to come down anyway, please think again, because Michael Cannon was right; the Federal Reserve did not understand real estate, and I am right: We effectively became the economy after outsourcing did its damage; it is too late to bring the jobs back; they will be lost no matter where they are, and if American property equity is not restored to Americans, rather than foreign investors, I predict, as I did to Michael Cannon that we will have a depression that will last decades.

    7. While I have made some headway, I am worried about a clear conflict of interest with the National Association of Realtor’s dedication to telling this story. The large firms are being kept alive with income from short sales, despite the fact that if the standard change was illegal, the short sales are illegal. They are too short sighted to see that as soon as Obama and the Federal Reserve get the next money package through, which will finance the foreign acquisition of American’s lost properties. The short sales that are keeping Realtors barely alive will be removed from the market.

    8. It is the Federal Reserve that owes America money . . . both their lost equity and punitive damages. The media reporting of it, without discovering the real reason values were going down, has cause great damage, which is going to take a long time to repair. It will be a great stimulus program. I, for one, promise to use my lost 600 thousand dollars in equity to stimulate the economy. I will save all the punitive damage awards for my old age. If this makes you laugh, because you think it is not possible, because it is the Federal Reserve, then this demonstrates that the law does not apply to the powerful, because the Federal Reserve is clearly libel. Case in point: A unit at Brickell Bay Club, in Miami sold all cash for $114,000.00; that is a price that is less than the sum of the units sold new for in 1975! The unit last sold for $400,000.00. Now, according to the combined S of W rule and the Fed’s risk management advisory, every unit like it in the building assumes that value. Say goodbye to the equity lines in the building; say goodbye to the banks that gave them, and say hello to more and more foreclosures in that building, because owners will all walk away in this new dog eat dog world in which we live.

    9. The movement in the market is overwhelmingly investing cash buyers, not real primary home buyers; the new apartment starts are government funded to developers through the NSP. CNN let the cat out of the bag; the banks are bringing in Chinese buyers to buy up America . Real estate cannot be the sacrificial fly in this scenario. Restoration of values and a real National Stabilization Program, rather than a thinly veiled bail out for developers , is our only hope.

    If you do not proceed with an audit given the above facts, please inform us of your detailed reasons for such a decision. Thank you for reading this email, and if you would like any of the documents such as:• the Scope of Work Rule, • the change to the Foundation’s preamble that they had to complete to satisfy the Fed. and• the Federal Reserve’s 2007-2008 Advisories to the Appraisal Foundation Board, Please let us know and I ill send them.

    Respectfully,

    Andrea Silverthorne & Robert Bostick

    Reply

    Save America Reply:

    @Robert Bostick, “CNN let the cat out of the bag; the banks are bringing in Chinese buyers to buy up America”

    LOL! You better watch out conspirator, Warren said his rosy colored glasses are very clear in his MMT bowling alley, there aint no conspiracy!

    Chuck Schumer was talking about bringing in the foreigners if they spend 250K in the USA, they get citizenship, buy a 250K or higher florida condo, become a US citizen. Now you read articles about Chinese Nationals that work for the fed/treasury and steal treasury code so they too can mark numbers up and down in US treasury bank accounts. Somehow it got by homeland security and all those unemployed friends I have in silicon Valley.

    Face it Bostick, all you old fuddy duddies sitting on that PRIMO real estate in south florida (until the sea level rises in 50 years and puts Miami underwater) need to be kicked to the curb so we can make way for those young and appreciative asians who will slave labor circles around you and your HIGH expectations!

    Think of the big picture, hundreds of millions of struggling asians are just itching at the chance to boot you out of your south florida houses, and why not? They work harder, only want a bowl of rice, why should you and PARTAY american youth get to hold onto that primo real estate? Its a global world after all, move to detroit if you want some cheap land (obviously the asians don’t want that real estate – YET ;)

    Save America Reply:

    @Robert Bostick,

    Here is some more fun Bostick, where were the regulators? How many more cockroaches will never be found with Obama’s cushy deal with the banksters and the 50 AG’s?

    http://www.bankersonline.com/blog/2008_09_01_archive.html#6468928899690598670#6468928899690598670

    Tuesday, September 23, 2008
    ( 10:53 AM ) Andy

    Mortgage Fraud – Is the smoke Going to Clear

    As mortgage lending slows, the smoke should begin to clear, exposing more of the mortgage mess. It will give us a chance to slap our heads and wonder how much better off we’d be if we just had a V8; case in point, WaMu. In July 2007 Vijay and Supriti Soni bought a home for $440,000 in Santa Ana, CA. Five weeks later, while prices were falling in the area, they sold that property for $660,000 to their gardener and handyman. WaMu made both loans. The property was actually worth $377,137 when foreclosed in July 2008.

    In all, it is reported that the Soni family had 43 mortgages with WaMu for $24.5 million since 2007. 22 have sold but six of them are problems. Four were foreclosed on, one is in default now and the sixth is up for sale at a $260,000 loss. WaMu’s has $2.7 million in problem loans from this bunch.

    Property values have fallen more than 40 percent in the Santa Ana area since the 2006 peak. The public records on 22 of the Sonis transactions show that in the past two years they had a total gain on sale of $3.7 million. They never had a property loss. Their average gain was 48 percent and flips were completed in 92 days. Some of these flips went from one family member to another. And the transaction was used as a comp on another of their flips to support rising values in the area. There is also doubt about the down payments that were supposedly made by buyers. In one case the buyer said he paid nothing down, but the records show $64,200 was paid. Lohia Soni was the escrow agent.

    WaMu is investigating the loans as mortgage fraud. At what point would red flags have gone up and more attention been given at your bank? The FHA banned financing flips less than 90 days after a sale. WaMu wasn’t following that rule here. The FHA also requires second appraisals when there is a 100 percent gain on sale after less than six months. The Sonis also had convictions for real estate fraud in 2003.

  6. Jim Baird Says:

    Dave:

    From wikipedia:

    The Federal Reserve System is an independent government institution that has private aspects. The System is not a private organization and does not operate for the purpose of making a profit. The stocks of the regional federal reserve banks are owned by the banks operating within that region and which are part of the system.[29] The System derives its authority and public purpose from the Federal Reserve Act passed by Congress in 1913. As an independent institution, the Federal Reserve System has the authority to act on its own without prior approval from Congress or the President.[30] The members of its Board of Governors are appointed for long, staggered terms, limiting the influence of day-to-day political considerations.[31] The Federal Reserve System’s unique structure also provides internal checks and balances, ensuring that its decisions and operations are not dominated by any one part of the system. It also generates revenue independently without need for Congressional funding. Congressional oversight and statutes, which can alter the Fed’s responsibilities and control, allow the government to keep the Federal Reserve System in check. Since the System was designed to be independent whilst also remaining within the government of the United States, it is often said to be “independent within the government.”[30]
    The 12 Federal Reserve banks provide the financial means to operate the Federal Reserve System. Each reserve bank is organized much like a private corporation so that it can provide the necessary revenue to cover operational expenses and implement the demands of the board. Member banks are privately owned banks that must buy a certain amount of stock in the Reserve Bank within its region to be a member of the Federal Reserve System. This stock “may not be sold, traded, or pledged as security for a loan” and all member banks receive a 6% annual dividend.[30] No stock in any Federal Reserve Bank has ever been sold to the public, to foreigners, or to any non-bank U.S. firm.[32] These member banks must maintain fractional reserves either as vault cash or on account at its Reserve Bank; member banks earn no interest on either of these. The dividends paid by the Federal Reserve Banks to member banks are considered partial compensation for the lack of interest paid on the required reserves. All profit after expenses is returned to the U.S. Treasury or contributed to the surplus capital of the Federal Reserve Banks (and since shares in ownership of the Federal Reserve Banks are redeemable only at par, the nominal “owners” do not benefit from this surplus capital); the Federal Reserve system contributed over $29 billion to the Treasury in 2006.[33]

    The problem with the Fed is not that it is beholden to “selfish interests”. As repeated here ad nauseum, the problem is that neither they nor the folks at treasury actually know how their system works, and so they flail about counterproductively.

    Never ascribe to malice that which can be adequately explained by stupidity.

    Reply

  7. Dave Begotka Says:

    Secretive Central Bank!? Sorry Wicapida is OWNED, I am not making this up, and Senator Mike Gravel says the government is controlled by a secretive CULT?

    Standing in left field, watching for UFO’s wishing for transparency in government.

    Here are some Ron Paul Facts, Remember him, Peter Shiff and many others predicted this mess along time ago and I think that gives them credibility.

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A4kxTkhwR_Q

    Reply

  8. warren mosler Says:

    Ron Paul has some good points about ‘transparency’ but is totally confused about the workings of the monetary system, the Fed, trade, etc.

    Yes, wages have stagnated vs profits, but Ronnie has no clue as to why.

    Yes, the currency as measured by CPI has gone down in value, but again he doesn’t know why it’s gone down, or what that causes.

    Yes, the Fed engages in all kinds of deals with the private sector without prior Congressional approval. But so do squad leaders on the battlefield. Both operate under guidelines set down ultimately by Congress.

    If members of the Fed have violated the law, throw them in jail. If not, blame Congress for the marching orders they’ve given the Fed.

    Reply

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